44 80 0086 8742
Chat Now

Ultimate Guide to Harvard Referencing

Harvard formatting style is a reference style which comprises of two parts: in-text citations and corresponding entries in the reference list.

The in-text citations are comprised according to the formula: Author's Last name, year of publication. For example: (Smith, 2012). The in-text citations is placed following a quote from the source or following an paraphrased idea from the same source.

However, depending on the author/authors or lack of one, the in-text citation may have several variants. Here's a table showing their main kinds.

One author

(author's last name, year of publication)

Example: (Smith, 1992)

Two authors

(1st author's last name and 2nd author's last name, year of publication)

Example: (Smith and Johnson, 1992)

Three authors

(1st author's last name, 2nd author's last name and 3rd author's last name, year of publication)

Example: (Smith, Johnson, and Hall, 1992)

Four or more authors

(1st author's last nane et al., year of publication)

Example: (Smith et al., 1992)

Corporate author

(name of organization, year of publication)

Example: (Dermatology Foundation, 2012)

No author

(title of the text, year of publication)

Example: (Light Houses, 2012)

No publishing date

(author's last name)

Example: (Smith)

The reference list has entries for all the in-text citations of the paper, which gives the reader the opportunity to find the sources. There is a general way that Harvard references are formed:

Author's last name, First initial. (year of publication). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

General rules for formatting the reference list

1. The entries need to be formatting in alphabetical order according to the author's last name.

2. In case of several sources by the same author, the sources are listed chronologically according to the year of publication.

3. If the year of publication and the author is the same, then the title of the work is used to format the list according to alphabetical order.

There are different particularities for different types of sources. Here is a table to help you keep track of them all.

Book with one author

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s).

Example of first edition:

Lee, H. (1960). To kill a mockingbird. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Example of not first edition:

Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the chocolate factory. 6th ed. New York: Knopf.

Book with two or more authors

Last name, First initial. and Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).

Chapter in edited book

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In: First initial. Last name, ed., Book Title, 1st ed.* City: Publisher, Page(s).

Printed Journal Article

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s).

Journal articles from a database or website

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online] Volume(Issue), pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Printed newspaper articles

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Page(s).

Newspaper article from a database or website

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, [online] pages. Available at: url [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Print Magazines

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Magazine, (Volume), Page(s).

Website

Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

eBook and PDF

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Archive Material

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the material. [format] Name of the university, library, organization, Collection name, code, or number. City.

Artwork

Last name, First initial. (Year created). Title. [Medium]. City that the artwork is/was displayed in: Gallery or Museum.

For example:

Gilbert, S. (1795-1796). George Washington. [Oil on canvas] New York: The Frick Collection.

Blog

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Post title. [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Broadcasts

Series title , (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.

Conference proceeding

Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. [online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Dictionary entry

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page.

Dissertation

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution.

Film, DVD or video

Film title . (Year published). [Format] Place of origin: Film maker.

Printed encyclopedia articles

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. In: Encyclopedia title, Edition. City published: Publisher, page(s).

Government publication

Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article. City published: Publisher, Page(s).

Music or recording

Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Medium] City published: Music Label.

Online music or recording

Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Online] City published: Music Label. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Online image or video

Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Podcast

Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title. [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Presentation or lecture

Last name, First initial. (Year) Presentation Title.

Printed press release

Corporate Author, (Year published). Title.

Online press release

Corporate Author, (Year published). Title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

Religious texts

Title (Year published). City published: Publisher, pages used.

Want to place an
order via the phone?
It's free